Parapsychology

Some parapsychologists have suggested that an unidentified nonphysical subatomic particle, such as "psitrons", "mindons" or "psychons", carries psi data, responsible for extrasensory perception, telepathy and psychokinesis. Axel Firsoff has said that "mindons" might have properties somewhat similar to those exhibited by neutrinos and may act as a kind of psychic energy.[24] The psychologist Cyril Burt has said that a "psychon" may exist which would act as a type of "mental field" which may explain some psychic phenomena.[25] Gerald Feinberg also suggested that telepathy may exist due to as of yet undiscovered elementary particles which he called psychons or mindons.[26][27] Feinberg's concept of a tachyon, a theoretical particle that travels faster than the speed of light has been advocated by some parapsychologists who say that it could explain psychokinesis.[28] The British physicist and mathematician Adrian Dobbs (1965) proposed a theory in which precognition occurs due to “psitrons,” hypothetical particles similar to tachyons that travel backward in time which may contact an observer's brain to produce a precognitive experience.[29] Hans Berger proposed that a psychical energy was the carrier of telepathic information.[30] Hammond (1952) and Ruderfer (1980) have proposed that neutrinos are the possible carrier of psi information.[31][32] According to William G. Roll all objects and individuals have "psi fields" around them which are the carriers of psi inf rmation.[33] Ervin Laszlo has also supported the "psi field" theory and has attempted to update it with his theory of the "Akashic field". Laszlo has written that this Akashic field is universal and connects everything at the sub-quantum level where it also conserves and conveys all information.[34][35][36] Oliver Reiser theorized that the brain was an amplification and receiving station for information stored in a memory field around the earth which he termed the psychosphere, he wrote that the psychosphere may be able to explain telepathy.[37][38] Some parapsychologists and paranormal writers have written that out of body experiences occur when the soul, spirit or subtle body can detach itself out of the physical body and visit distant locations. Muldoon (1936) embraced the concept of an etheric body to explain OBEs.[39] Other researchers have also attempted to explain apparitional experiences and ghosts with the concept of energy. An early psychical researcher Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick had claimed that objects such as furniture or buildings can absorb psychic energy or impressions which could be transmitted to people nearby.[40] This idea was later termed the Stone Tape theory. The parapsychologist H. H. Price proposed that a universal psychic ether exists as an intermediary between the mental and ordinary matter. According to Price the psychic ether consists of images and ideas and could explain hauntings, clairvoyance, ghosts and other paranormal phenomena.